Factors affecting morphological and electrical properties of Barium Titanate: A brief review (2023)

Materials Today: Proceedings

Volume 44, Part 6,


, Pages 4548-4556

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Lead Zirconate Titanate has been extensively used to make ultrasound transducers, sensors, and actuators as well as high-value ceramic capacitors for a very long time. The main disadvantage of Lead Zirconate Titanate is its toxic nature due to the presence of Lead, which has been banned in most of the nations around the globe. In search of Lead-free materials as a suitable replacement to Lead Zirconate Titanate, Barium Titanate is a very strong candidate. It can be used as an electrical insulator in its purest form. Doped Barium Titanate is a promising tunable material with enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties which can be a good alternative to Lead Zirconate Titanate. Properties of Barium Titanate are found to change with preparation routes, doping, and other factors. Variation in dielectric constant and high permittivity makes Barium Titanate a useful material for many applications in modern electronic devices. In this paper, analysis has been done on the changes that occur in the properties of Barium Titanate with different factors like crystallographic orientation, grain size, texturing, doping concentration, and sintering process. The piezoelectric property makes Barium Titanate useful for many applications like semiconductors, positive temperature-coefficient resistors, transducers, and ceramics. From the perspective of future applications, materials possessing good fracture toughness improved piezoelectric and dielectric properties, and higher temperature stability is needed. Therefore, it is concluded that the properties of Barium Titanate are enhanced when doped with suitable materials like Mn, Ce, Ti, Fe, Zr, etc. and by adopting different preparation routes like the sol–gel method, hydrothermal method, chemical alloying method, co-precipitation method, and polymeric precursor method.


Many efforts have been made by researchers to find renewable and pollution free energy resources. Various investigations in basic and applied sciences have been done to find lead free materials to prevent degradation of environment and human health. In early years of discovery of piezoelectricity, Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) was known to have good piezoelectric constant value. But later on due to its toxic effect, research was shifted to new materials to find an alternative of PZT. Barium Titanate (BTO) is the first polycrystalline material exhibiting both ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity. BTO is a common material having high ferroelectric and dielectric properties. Having high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss, BTO can be used in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), thermistors and dynamic random access memories (DRAM) [1], [2]. Fig. 1(a), (b), (c) and (d) show a capacitor made up of ferroelectric material, a guitar pick up, an infrared sensor and thermistor elements respectively which can be made of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials [3].

Electrically tunable devices can be prepared with the help of ferroelectric materials having wide range of applications in phase shifters, tunable oscillators and detectors. Being a ferroelectric material, BTO ihas been found to be appropriate material for application in optical waveguides, dielectric memories, dielectric resonators and electromechanical elements [4], [5]. Multiple functionalities of single material make BTO important for wide range of applications. Being a perovskite material (ABO3), BTO possesses ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity even at room temperature [6], [7]. Ferroelectrics are significant materials for applications in modern memories, capacitors, electric devices, transducers and strain gauges. Ferroelectric materials are found to have wonderful properties, like piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and dielectric permittivity which make them suitable materials for many applications [8].Variation in crystallographic orientation also affects the piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity and dielectric constant [9]. It was noted that spontaneous polarization and substrate induced strains depend on the crystallographic orientation like (0 0 1), (1 0 1) and (1 1 1) [10].

Structure factor, grain size, doping, and synthesis routes affect the properties of the BTO. But doping is found to be an effective method to make the changes in properties of the materials in an easy way. To modify the physical properties, an effective approach is adopted by doping at the A-site and B-site of BTO (Fig. 2). Thin films of BTO can be developed by different methods like sputtering, laser deposition method, and chemical method. Work has been done on Barium Titanate by adopting different synthesis routes and doping with different elements. In this paper, changes in the properties of BTO because of doping, preparation routes, texturing, and grain size have been studied [11]. Suitable doping materials can improve properties like dielectric constant, permittivity, and piezoelectric coefficient (Fig. 3).

Section snippets

Literature review

In piezoelectric materials, when we apply stress, an electric field is generated in the specimen and vice-versa [9], [12]. Piezoelectricity can be induced in materials by deforming their structure to generate electric signals which are useful in energy harvesting, piezoelectric sensors, and actuators. This effect was discovered by the Curie brothers in 1880. Naturally occurring materials like Rochelle salt, Quartz, and tourmaline show a negligible piezoelectric effect. So, new materials were

3.1Domain and grain size

Grain size and domain size play an important role in the improvement of properties like ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, relative permittivity, Curie temperature and coercive field as shown in Fig. 6. A large grain size causes reduction in dielectric and ferroelectric properties. The relationship between domain size and grain size for BTO is shown in Fig. 8. On the other hand, Curie temperature is found to increase with increase in grain size. The sintering time and temperature as well as

Doping with different materials

Since BTO belongs to the perovskite (ABO3) family so we need to be attentive about the doping material. We can dope the A site and B site by choosing a material having some specific properties. According to qualitative data, ions on A and B sites depend on the tolerance factor. But some other factors also affect the occupancy of A and B sites by the dopant. Many dopants found to have valences 2+, 3+, and 4 + . A-site drives the ions towards lower valence while B-site drives it towards higher

Effect of preparation route on the properties of BTO

Many methods have been developed for the preparation of Barium Titanate powder, ceramics, and thin films [13], [43]. A lot of papers have mentioned the synthesis techniques of BTO. A cost-effective and application-based synthesis route is always preferred. Preparation methods affect the physical and chemical properties of the product sample. Different methods can be compared by analyzing the properties of products that are formed at the end of the process.

(Video) Electronic Ceramics in the Carolinas

In a solid-state reaction method, BTO

Summary and conclusion

In this paper, we discussed the structure of BTO and some factors that affect properties like ferroelectricity, dielectricity, and piezoelectricity. It has been reported that BTO is worthy material for use in optoelectronic devices, transducers, ultrasonic devices, ceramics, and other electronic devices. Many factors discussed affecting the properties of BTO like grain size, domain size, Curie temperature, texturing, doping, and preparation routes. To have the lead free materials, BTO was found

CRediT authorship contribution statement

Krishna Tewatia: Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing - original draft, Investigation. Anuradha Sharma: Supervision. Mamta Sharma: . Arun Kumar: .

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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    What are the properties of barium titanate material? ›

    Barium titanate is a white powder and transparent as larger crystals (Veith et al., 2000). This titanate is a ferroelectric ceramic material, with photorefractive effect and piezoelectric properties. It is used in capacitors, electromechanical transducers and nonlinear optics (Xu, 2013).

    What are the disadvantages of barium titanate? ›

    Disadvantages of barium titanate might be high leakage and self-discharge, ceramic brittleness, and failure due to thermal stresses.

    What is the piezoelectric effect of barium titanate? ›

    Barium titanate appears white as a powder and is transparent when prepared as large crystals. It is a ferroelectric, pyroelectric, and piezoelectric ceramic material that exhibits the photorefractive effect. It is used in capacitors, electromechanical transducers and nonlinear optics.

    Is barium titanate hazardous? ›

    CONSIDERED A HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE ACCORDING TO OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200. Voltage-sensitive dielectric in dielectric amplifiers; magnetic amplifiers; memory devises. Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed.

    What is the effect of temperature on barium titanate? ›

    The dielectric constant of BT at a sintering temperature of 1000oC, 1100oC, and 1200oC are 148, 163, and 185, respectively. It can be concluded that sintering temperature affects microstructure and dielectric constant of BT. High sintering temperature produces a high dielectric constant of BT.

    What are the properties and characteristics of barium? ›

    Barium is a soft, silvery metal that rapidly tarnishes in air and reacts with water. Barium is not an extensively used element. Most is used in drilling fluids for oil and gas wells. It is also used in paint and in glassmaking.

    Is barium titanate brittle? ›

    Barium titanate is a brittle, lead free ferroelectric and piezoelectric ceramic used in patterned and thin film forms in micro- and nano-scale electronic devices.

    What is the dissipation factor of barium titanate? ›

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) is a potential non-lead source of piezoelectric crystals for low temperature and room temperature applications.
    Properties of Barium Titanate (BaTiO3)
    Dielectric Dissipation Factor (Dielectric Loss(%)*
    tan δ0.5
    Electromechanical Coupling Factor
    14 more rows

    Why does BaTiO3 have high dielectric constant? ›

    The increase in dielectric constant can be due to the modifications in the grain size, resulting from the incorporation of the erbium in the BaTiO3 structure [5].

    What are the advantages of barium titanate? ›

    Barium titanate is an important functional material in the electronics industry because of its superior dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and electro-optical properties.

    What phase changes does barium titanate have? ›

    TC for barium titanate is 120°C. Cooling through 120°C causes the cubic phase of barium titanate to transform to a tetragonal phase with the lengthening of the c lattice parameter (and a corresponding reduction in a and b).

    How does PZT generate electricity? ›

    Piezoelectricity is a physical phenomenon via which mechanically stressed crystals generate potential differences. Quartz is one of these piezoelectric crystals. By squeezing and stretching it, it generates a slight electrical potential difference between its ends by rearranging its charges.

    Is barium titanate soluble in water? ›

    The chemical formula for Barium Titanate is BaTiO3. As a powder it is white to grey in colour and has a perovskite structure. It is soluble in many acids including sulfuric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. It is insoluble in alkalis and water.

    Is barium titanate magnetic? ›

    Abstract: Dependences of magnetization on magnetic field strength were studied for both the nanostructured and the bulk ferroelectric barium titanate. It has been found that nanostructured barium titanate demonstrates ferroelectric, ferromagnetic and diamagnetic properties simultaneously.

    What are the applications of barium titanate? ›

    Uses of Barium titanate

    Barium titanate can be used as an electrical insulator in its purest form. The compound is used in capacitors as a dielectric ceramic material. It is also be used as a piezoelectric material in microphones and other transducers.

    Why is barium titanate ferroelectric? ›

    Origin of ferroelectricity in barium titanate and other perovskite-type crystals. The origin of ferroelectricity is attributed to a small change of bond character occurring in a structure whose geometry is compatible with either ionic or homopolar binding.

    What is the price of barium titanate? ›

    Barium Titanate at Rs 4200/100 gram | Nano Powder in Kaithal | ID: 23439661288.

    Does temperature affect titanium? ›

    Single phase α-titanium shows anomalous warm deformation behaviour. As the temperature increases, ductility increases in uniaxial tension and decreases in biaxial stretching. Previously, this behaviour was attributed to an increase in strain rate sensitivity and a decrease in twinning activity with temperature.

    What are 5 properties of barium? ›

    Chemical properties of barium - Health effects of barium - Environmental effects of barium
    Atomic number56
    Electronegativity according to Pauling0.9
    Density3.5 g.cm-3 at 20°C
    Melting point725 °C
    Boiling point1640 °C
    9 more rows

    What are 5 physical properties of barium? ›

    Physical properties

    Pure barium is a pale yellow, somewhat shiny, somewhat malleable metal. Malleable means capable of being hammered into thin sheets. It has a melting point of about 700°C (1,300°F) and a boiling point of about 1,500°C (2,700°F). Its density is 3.6 grams per cubic centimeter.

    What are the hazards of barium? ›

    Nausea, vomiting, irregular heartbeat, muscle weakness, tremors, paralysis and even death Remove the person from exposure. Flush eyes with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contact lenses if worn. Quickly remove contaminated clothing and wash contaminated skin with large amounts of soap and water.

    What type of bonding do you expect for barium titanate? ›

    The results also indicate that BaTiO3 is indirect semiconductor, ionic bond forms between Ba atom and TiO3 group and covalent bond forms between Ti and O atoms in the unit cell.

    What is the theory of barium titanate? ›

    The theory of the dielectric and crystallographic properties of barium titanate is considered. By expanding the free energy as a function of polarization and strain and making reasonable assumptions about the coefficients, it is found possible to account for the various crystal transitions.

    What is the voltage sensitivity of barium titanate? ›

    The voltage sensitivities of Barium Titanate and Quartz are respectively 12 × 10-3 Vm / N and 50 × 10-3 Vm / N. their respective permittivities are 12.5 × 10-9 F / m and 40.6 × 10-12 F / m.

    What are the dielectric properties of BaTiO3? ›

    Hexagonal BaTiO3 exhibits almost linear dielectric constant value between 60 to 120, however the tetragonal phase shows a phase transition from tetragonal to cubic at 120⁰C. The tetragonal phase BaTiO3 has the highest dielectric constant 6000 at Tc and 4000 at room temperature.

    What is the dielectric behavior of BaTiO3? ›

    The BaTiO3 particles prepared were found to be spherical, homogeneous and cubic in structure. The particle size was found to be 23–31 nm. The dielectric constant and dissipation factor after sintering at 400 °C were 5379 and 0⋅63, respectively at 100 Hz frequency.

    What is the solvent for barium titanate? ›

    Chemical Solution Deposition of Barium Titanate Thin Films with Ethylene Glycol as Solvent for Barium Acetate. Molecules. 2022 Jun 10;27(12):3753. doi: 10.3390/molecules27123753.

    Why does barium titanate show spontaneous polarization? ›

    In barium titanate, BaTiO3, the phase transition temperature is around 130°C. As the perovskite is cooled below the transition temperature, Tc, the paraelectric phase changes into the ferroelectric phase, and the material displays spontaneous strain, Ss, and spontaneous polarization.

    Why does barium titanate exhibit piezoelectric properties? ›

    Barium titanate is an inorganic compound which seems white as a powder and is clear when made as huge crystals. It is ferroelectric ceramic which exhibits the photorefractive effect and piezoelectric properties. The solid exists in one of the five polymorphs depending on temperature.

    What are the applications of barium titanate nanoparticles? ›

    Barium titanate is appropriate for electro-optical devices, multilayer ceramic capacitors, thermistors, sensors, and other universal electronic ceramics.

    What makes barium unique? ›

    Barium is a soft, silvery white metal with a gold tinge (Fig. 1) that has a high chemical reactivity and exists in nature only in combination with other elements. It readily combines with other elements such as sulfur, carbon and oxygen to form barium compounds.

    What is the activation energy of barium titanate? ›

    It is shown that the activation energy for conduction in barium titanate ceramics containing lead or lithium is about 18.4 kcal/mole (0.8 electron volts), and that this is either equal to or not very different from the activation energy for conduction in the single crystal.

    What is the frequency of barium titanate? ›

    The dielectric properties of BaTiO3@%FeO nanoceramics exhibit good temperature (-55-125°C) and frequency(1Hz-1MHz) stability, indicating the fine dielectric quality of the ceramics.

    What is the most powerful piezoelectric material? ›

    On the other hand, the most powerful piezoelectric materials such as barium titanate oxide (BaTiO3) or lead zirconate titanate are stiff and brittle ceramics [6] and only a few piezoelectric polymers and co-polymers exist including polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and nylon.

    How much voltage does piezoelectricity produce? ›

    Piezoelectric elements can generate high voltages (>>100 volts) under external vibration, shock, or temperature shifts.

    Can we generate electricity from piezoelectric materials? ›

    piezoelectric materials, crystals and ceramics have the ability to generate a small electric potential when they are subjected to mechanical stress, which maNes them suitable for a variety of applications, from harnessing sounds to producing electricity.

    Is BaTiO3 a dielectric? ›

    BaTiO3 is a common ferroelectric material with high dielectric constant, widely to manufacture electronic component such a multilayer capacitor (MLCs), PTC thermistors, piezoelectric transducer, high-density memory devices, piezoelectrics, transducers[1-3] and dielectric resonator antenna [4-7].

    Is barium titanate an insulator? ›

    Barium titanates (pure BaTiO3 and doped variations) have excellent dielectric properties (they are very good insulators) and are used to make capacitors in the electronics industry.

    Is barium titanate a semiconductor? ›

    Abstract. Rhodium-doped barium titanate (BaTiO3:Rh) powder was prepared by the polymerized complex (PC) method, and the photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution from water was examined. BaTiO3 is a wide-gap n-type semiconductor having a band gap of 3.0 eV.

    Who manufactures barium titanate? ›

    BESPA (Barium Titanate) - (Electronic Ceramic Materials):Nippon Chemical Industrial of chemical manufacturer.

    How is barium titanate created? ›

    Barium titanate is one of the most important ferroelectrics. It is formed from the reaction of a mixture of BaCO3 and TiO2 heated at 1250°C. The product is powdered and then worked by means of common ceramic techniques.

    Is barium titanate a perovskite? ›

    Barium titanate is a ferroelectric perovskite ceramic which undergoes three phase transmission with its decreasing temperature from cubic phase to tetragonal and then from tetragonal to orthorhombic and from orthorhombic to Rhombohedral phase [4], [5].

    Where is titanate found? ›

    Strontium Titanate is a diamond simulant developed in the early 1950's and patented in 1953. It is sold in the trade as Fabulite and Diagem. In 1982 Strontium Titanate's natural analog tausonite was discovered in eastern Siberia, Russia.

    What is bismuth titanate uses? ›

    About Bismuth Titanate

    Titanate compounds contain a form of Titanium Oxide and have various applications including electronics, ceramics, and batteries (in the case of Lithium Titanate).

    What are the specific properties of titanium? ›

    It is strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant. Pure titanium is not soluble in water but is soluble in concentrated acids. This metal forms a passive but protective oxide coating (leading to corrosion-resistance) when exposed to elevated temperatures in air but at room temperatures it resists tarnishing.

    What are the 7 main physical properties? ›

    Most minerals can be characterized and classified by their unique physical properties: hardness, luster, color, streak, specific gravity, cleavage, fracture, and tenacity.

    What are 5 physical properties that can be measured or observed for the matter? ›

    Physical properties of matter include color, mass, density, melting point, and odor. These are properties that can be observed or measured without changing the matter to a new substance.

    Does titanium conduct electricity? ›

    Because titanium is electrically conductive, it is natural to assume that an electric current would flow between the cathodic and anodic zones.

    What are the 6 physical properties of titanium? ›

    Read a brief summary of this topic
    atomic number22
    melting point1,660 °C (3,020 °F)
    boiling point3,287 °C (5,949 °F)
    density4.5 g/cm3 (20 °C)
    oxidation states+2, +3, +4
    2 more rows
    Apr 6, 2023

    What are 3 physical properties of titanium? ›

    Pure titanium is a lustrous white metal with low density, high strength, and high corrosion resistance. It is resistant to dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, moist chlorine gas, most organic acids, and chloride solutions.


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