SQL Server Table Data to C# Objects: A Guide for Developers (2023)

If you're a developer or a database administrator, you undoubtedly know that SQL Server and other relational database management systems are among the most popular tools for data management. Isn't it time to enhance your knowledge of the subject?

The Basics of C# Objects: What are they and how do they work with SQL Server?

C# objects are instances of classes in the C# programming language. They are used to represent real-world entities, such as customers, orders, or products, and they contain data and behavior that manipulate that data.When working with SQL Server, C# objects are commonly used to manage data by representing database tables and their corresponding rows as objects in memory. This is often done using an Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) framework, which maps database tables and columns to C# classes and properties, respectively.

Here's an example of how C# objects can work with SQL Server using an ORM framework like Entity Framework:

  1. Define the C# object: You can define a C# class to represent a database table. For example, if you have a table called "Customers" with columns "Name" and "Email", you can create a C# class like this:
public class Customer{ public int Id { get; set; } public string Name { get; set; } public string Email { get; set; }}
  1. Map the C# object to the database table: You can use an ORM framework like Entity Framework to map the C# object to the corresponding database table. This is usually done using attributes or a fluent API. For example:
public class MyDbContext : DbContext{ public DbSet<Customer> Customers { get; set; } protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder modelBuilder) { modelBuilder.Entity<Customer>().ToTable("Customers"); modelBuilder.Entity<Customer>().Property(c => c.Name).IsRequired(); modelBuilder.Entity<Customer>().Property(c => c.Email).IsRequired(); }}
  1. Use the C# object to manage data: You can use the C# object to manage data by creating, reading, updating, and deleting (CRUD) rows in the corresponding database table. For example, to add a new customer to the database:
using (var context = new MyDbContext()){ var customer = new Customer { Name = "John Smith", Email = "john@example.com" }; context.Customers.Add(customer); context.SaveChanges();}

This code creates a new instance of the Customer class, adds it to the Customers DbSet, and saves the changes to the database using the SaveChanges() method.

Connecting to SQL Server: Setting up your environment and establishing a connection

To connect to SQL Server, you need to set up your environment and establish a connection. Here are the steps:

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  1. Install SQL Server: Download and install SQL Server on your computer. You can download the latest version of SQL Server from the Microsoft website.
  1. Start SQL Server Management Studio: Open SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS), which is the primary tool for managing SQL Server databases.
  1. Connect to SQL Server: In SSMS, click on the "Connect" button in the toolbar to open the "Connect to Server" window. In this window, enter the server name (or choose it from the drop-down list), select the authentication method (Windows Authentication or SQL Server Authentication), and enter the login credentials if necessary. Click the "Connect" button to establish the connection.
  1. Verify the connection: After connecting, you should see the server name in the Object Explorer window. Expand the server to see the databases, tables, and other objects in the database. You can also run a simple query to test the connection:
SELECT @@VERSION

This query returns the version of SQL Server that you are connected to.

Once you have established a connection, you can create and manage databases, tables, and other database objects using SSMS. You can also use SQL queries to retrieve, insert, update, and delete data from the database.

Creating Databases and Tables: Step-by-step guide to creating a new database and table

To create a new database and table, you can follow these step-by-step instructions:

  1. Open SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS): Launch SSMS by searching for it in the Windows start menu or by clicking on the SSMS icon on your desktop.
  2. Connect to your server: In SSMS, connect to the SQL Server instance that you want to create the database and table in. You can do this by entering the server name and authentication method.
  3. Create a new database: Right-click on the "Databases" folder in the Object Explorer window and select "New Database". In the "New Database" dialog box, give your database a name, specify the database owner and file locations, and configure any other options as needed. Click "OK" to create the new database.
  4. Create a new table: Expand your new database in the Object Explorer window and right-click on the "Tables" folder. Select "New Table". This will open the "Table Designer" window.
  5. Design your table: In the "Table Designer" window, you can add columns to your table by entering the column name, data type, and any constraints. You can also set the primary key and other indexes, configure relationships with other tables, and add any necessary triggers or constraints.
  6. Save your table: Once you have designed your table, save it by clicking the "Save" button in the toolbar.
  7. Preview your SQL script: Before creating the table, you can preview the SQL script that will be executed by clicking the "Generate Change Script" button in the toolbar. This will open a new window with the SQL script. Review the script to ensure that it matches your design.
  8. Create your table: Once you are satisfied with your design and the SQL script, click the "Update" button in the toolbar to create your table.

Inserting and Retrieving Data Using SQL queries

To add data to your tables and retrieve it using SQL queries, you can follow these steps:

Inserting data: To add data to your table, you can use the INSERT INTO statement. For example, if you have a table called "students" with columns "name" and "age", you can insert a new row with the following statement:

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INSERT INTO students (name, age) VALUES ('John Smith', 21);

This statement inserts a new row into the "students" table with the name "John Smith" and age "21". You can add as many rows as you need by repeating the INSERT INTO statement with different values.

Retrieving data: To retrieve data from your table, you can use the SELECT statement. For example, if you want to retrieve all the rows from the "students" table, you can use the following statement:

SELECT * FROM students;

This statement retrieves all the columns and rows from the "students" table. You can also specify which columns you want to retrieve by listing them after the SELECT keyword. For example, if you only want to retrieve the "name" column, you can use the following statement:

SELECT name FROM students;

Filtering data: You can also filter the data you retrieve by using the WHERE clause. For example, if you only want to retrieve the rows where the age is greater than or equal to 18, you can use the following statement:

SELECT * FROM students WHERE age >= 18;

This statement retrieves only the rows where the age is greater than or equal to 18. You can also use other operators like <, >, <=, >=, and != to filter your data.

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Ordering data: You can also order your retrieved data using the ORDER BY clause. For example, if you want to retrieve the rows from the "students" table ordered by age in descending order, you can use the following statement:

SELECT * FROM students ORDER BY age DESC;

This statement retrieves all the rows from the "students" table ordered by age in descending order.

Overall, adding data to your tables and retrieving it using SQL queries involves using INSERT INTO and SELECT statements, as well as filtering and ordering your data using the WHERE and ORDER BY clauses.

Updating and Deleting Data: Managing data in your tables with update and delete operations

Updating and deleting data are important operations when working with databases. Here are some basic steps to update and delete data in SQL Server using C#:

Updating data

  1. Connect to the database: You can use SqlConnection class to connect to the SQL Server database.
  1. Create an SQL UPDATE statement: You can create an SQL UPDATE statement to update the data in the database table. For example:
UPDATE Customers SET Email = 'newemail@example.com' WHERE Id = 1;
  1. Execute the SQL UPDATE statement: You can execute the SQL UPDATE statement using a SqlCommand object. For example:
using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(connectionString)){ connection.Open(); string sql = "UPDATE Customers SET Email = 'newemail@example.com' WHERE Id = 1;"; using (SqlCommand command = new SqlCommand(sql, connection)) { command.ExecuteNonQuery(); }}

This code opens a SqlConnection object and creates a SqlCommand object with the SQL UPDATE statement. The ExecuteNonQuery() method is used to execute the SQL statement, which updates the data in the Customers table.

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Deleting data:

  1. Connect to the database: You can use SqlConnection class to connect to the SQL Server database.
  1. Create an SQL DELETE statement: You can create an SQL DELETE statement to delete the data from the database table. For example:
DELETE FROM Customers WHERE Id = 1;
  1. Execute the SQL DELETE statement: You can execute the SQL DELETE statement using a SqlCommand object. For example:
using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(connectionString)){ connection.Open(); string sql = "DELETE FROM Customers WHERE Id = 1;"; using (SqlCommand command = new SqlCommand(sql, connection)) { command.ExecuteNonQuery(); }}

This code opens a SqlConnection object and creates a SqlCommand object with the SQL DELETE statement. The ExecuteNonQuery() method is used to execute the SQL statement, which deletes the data from the Customers table.

In addition to using raw SQL statements, you can also use an ORM framework like Entity Framework to update and delete data in SQL Server using C#. With Entity Framework, you can update and delete data by modifying objects in memory and then saving those changes to the database using the SaveChanges() method. For example, to update a customer's email address using Entity Framework:

using (var context = new MyDbContext()){ var customer = context.Customers.Find(1); customer.Email = "newemail@example.com"; context.SaveChanges();}

This code loads a customer object from the Customers DbSet, updates its email property, and then saves the changes to the database using the SaveChanges() method.

Advanced SQL Server Concepts: Indexes, Views, Stored Procedures, and Triggers

There are several advanced concepts that are important to understand when working with databases. Here are some key concepts to know:

  1. Indexes: Indexes are database objects that speed up the performance of queries by providing faster access to data. Indexes are created on one or more columns of a table and are used to locate data more quickly when searching or sorting the data. There are different types of indexes, such as clustered and non-clustered indexes, and they can be created using SQL statements or through the SQL Server Management Studio.
  2. Views: Views are virtual tables that display data from one or more tables in the database. Views can be used to simplify queries, provide an additional level of security, or create a customized presentation of data. Views are created using SQL statements or through the SQL Server Management Studio.
  3. Stored Procedures: Stored procedures are precompiled database objects that contain one or more SQL statements. They can be used to execute complex queries, perform calculations, or perform other operations on the database. Stored procedures can improve performance by reducing the amount of network traffic between the database and the application, and they can also provide an additional level of security. Stored procedures are created using SQL statements or through the SQL Server Management Studio.
  4. Triggers: Triggers are special types of stored procedures that are automatically executed in response to certain events, such as when data is inserted, updated, or deleted from a table. Triggers can be used to enforce business rules, perform complex calculations, or perform other operations on the database. Triggers are created using SQL statements or through the SQL Server Management Studio.

Using these advanced concepts in SQL Server can help improve the performance and functionality of your database applications. However, it's important to use them judiciously and to understand the potential impact on performance and security. It's also important to keep them well-organized and documented, so that they are easy to maintain and troubleshoot.

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Using SQL Server with C# Applications: Integrating for data management

Integrating SQL Server with a C# application involves the following steps:

  1. Connecting to the database: Use the SqlConnection class in the System.Data.SqlClient namespace to connect to the SQL Server database. Create a connection string that includes the database server name, the database name, and any authentication credentials
using System.Data.SqlClient;string connectionString = "Server=myServerName;Database=myDatabaseName;User Id=myUsername;Password=myPassword;";SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(connectionString);connection.Open();
  1. Executing SQL statements: Use the SqlCommand class to execute SQL statements against the database. Create a SQL statement as a string and pass it to the SqlCommand constructor.
using System.Data.SqlClient;string sql = "SELECT * FROM Customers";SqlCommand command = new SqlCommand(sql, connection);SqlDataReader reader = command.ExecuteReader();
  1. Reading data from the database: Use a SqlDataReader object to read data from the database after executing a SQL statement.
using System.Data.SqlClient;while (reader.Read()){ Console.WriteLine(reader["CustomerID"] + "\t" + reader["CompanyName"]);}reader.Close();
  1. Writing data to the database: Use the 'SqlCommand class' to write data to the database.
using System.Data.SqlClient;string sql = "INSERT INTO Customers (CustomerID, CompanyName) VALUES (@CustomerID, @CompanyName)";SqlCommand command = new SqlCommand(sql, connection);command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@CustomerID", "ALFKI");command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@CompanyName", "Alfreds Futterkiste");command.ExecuteNonQuery();
  1. Disconnecting from the database: Use the 'SqlConnection class' to disconnect from the database when you are done working with it.
using System.Data.SqlClient;connection.Close();

These are the basic steps for integrating SQL Server with a C# application. You can also use Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) frameworks like Entity Framework to simplify database operations and reduce the amount of boilerplate code. Entity Framework provides a way to interact with the database using objects and LINQ queries, making it easier to work with the data in your application.

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FAQs

How to show data from SQL Server to C#? ›

Introduction
  1. Open Visual Studio and create a new Windows form application.
  2. Create a form using buttons (insert ,search,update,delete and navigation), textbox, labels, and datagridview.
  3. After creating the form, connect the database to the form. For that right click on the form and it opens Form1. cs.
Jun 1, 2022

How to display data from SQL database to textbox using C# net? ›

How to show data in textbox using C# . Net?
  1. Create a New window form application in Microsoft Visual Studio C#.
  2. Now design your window form application like below form. ...
  3. Open your Microsoft SQL Server and create a table like as below. ...
  4. Now move to window form application(Form1.

How to get data from table from database in C#? ›

You will need to import the following namespaces. Inside the Form Initialize event handler, BindGrid method is called. Inside BindGrid method, first a connection to the database is established using the SqlConnection class and then the SqlCommand is initialized with the SQL to be executed.

How to create table in SQL using DataTable C#? ›

Creating a DataTable in “C# DataTable”
  1. We first need to create an instance of a “DataTable class” for creating a data table in “C# DataTable”.
  2. Then we will add DataColumn objects that define the type of data we will insert.
  3. And then add DataRow objects which contain the data.
Feb 17, 2023

How to display data from DataBase in C# Visual Studio? ›

Solution 2
  1. Ensure your TextBox is MultiLine.
  2. Set up a connection to the database.
  3. Set up an SQL command to read the numbers.
  4. Clear the TextBox content.
  5. Read the data from the DataBase and add each line to the TextBox.
Feb 8, 2011

How to display data from SQL database to label using C# net? ›

Solution 1
  1. Create connection object.
  2. open connection.
  3. create sqlcommand to read the data by passing the select query.
  4. execure reader.
  5. then labelname.text=Reader["Columnname"].ToString();
Aug 25, 2012

How to fill TextBox from DataTable in C#? ›

Text[^]. What you should probably do is create a BindingSource[^] and assign your DataTable to the DataSource Property[^]. You can now set the DataSource of your ComboBox to point at the BindingSource and you can add a Binding[^] to your TextBox using TextBox. DataBindings[^] (Inherited from Control[^]).

How to read data from SQL data reader in C#? ›

The ADO.NET SqlDataReader class in C# is used to read data from the SQL Server database in the most efficient manner. It reads data in the forward-only direction. It means, once it read a record, it will then read the next record, there is no way to go back and read the previous record. SqlDataReader is read-only.

How to get DataTable data in variable in C#? ›

Try to use like this. DataTable dtData = new DataTable(); //Get the data in datatable, then bind with string variable.

How to convert DataTable to model in C#? ›

Generic Method
  1. public static class CommonMethod {
  2. public static List < T > ConvertToList < T > (DataTable dt) {
  3. var columnNames = dt.Columns.Cast < DataColumn > ().Select(c => c.ColumnName.ToLower()).ToList();
  4. var properties = typeof(T).GetProperties();
  5. return dt.AsEnumerable().Select(row => {
Apr 11, 2018

How to use DataTable and dataset in C#? ›

Datatable is the representation of one table in the database where rows and columns are properly named in the database.
...
Difference Between Dataset to Datatable C#
  1. Dataset is a collection of tables, and hence it is datatables itself.
  2. Datatable is a collection of rows and columns to form a table.

How to create a dynamic table in SQL Server using C#? ›

Creating a database table.
  1. private void CreateTableBtn_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
  2. {
  3. // Open the connection.
  4. if (conn.State == ConnectionState.Open)
  5. conn.Close();
  6. ConnectionString = "Integrated Security=SSPI;" +
  7. "Initial Catalog=mydb;" +
  8. "Data Source=localhost;";
Nov 2, 2020

How much data a DataTable can hold in C#? ›

The maximum number of rows that a DataTable can store is 16,777,216.

How to display image from SQL database in C#? ›

Use the following procedure to fetch the image.
  1. Open a Windows Forms application and insert a picture box and a button into the form.
  2. Write C# code to retrieve the image from the SQL Server database . using System; ...
  3. Now run your application and click on the button to see the image displayed in the picture box. C# .net.
Mar 14, 2013

How to get data from SQL Server to DataGridView in C#? ›

Step 1: Make a database with a table in SQL Server. Step 2: Create a Windows Application and add DataGridView on the Form. Now add a DataGridView control to the form by selecting it from Toolbox and set properties according to your needs.

How to insert data from dataset to database in C# net? ›

Go to File, New, Projects and under Visual C# select Windows. Step 2: In Solution Explorer you will get your Project Add Service Based Database by going to your Project. Right click and Add New Item, then select Service-based Database. Right click on the blank part of Form1.

How to create DataTable from list object in C#? ›

List to Datatable Converter Using C#
  1. Introduction.
  2. Step 1: Create a console application and add the Student class with the properties as below.
  3. Step 2: In Main method, create a list of students as below.
  4. Step 3: Now we are going to convert this list object to a DataTable.
Nov 25, 2021

How to add data column in DataTable C#? ›

You create DataColumn objects within a table by using the DataColumn constructor, or by calling the Add method of the Columns property of the table, which is a DataColumnCollection. The Add method accepts optional ColumnName, DataType, and Expression arguments and creates a new DataColumn as a member of the collection.

How to pass a textbox value to a label in C#? ›

It is simple. Just cache it (into user session ), or send (by using query string ) the value input into the textbox and used it in the Page_Load event of the other web page to init its label.

Why do we use Sqldatareader in C#? ›

ExecuteReader to retrieve rows from a data source. The DataReader provides an unbuffered stream of data that allows procedural logic to efficiently process results from a data source sequentially. The DataReader is a good choice when you're retrieving large amounts of data because the data is not cached in memory.

How to get data from DataReader to DataTable in C#? ›

Using the code
  1. #region Convert Datareader toDatatable.
  2. /// <summary>
  3. /// Convert Datareader toDatatable.
  4. /// </summary>
  5. /// <param name="query"></param>
  6. /// <param name="myConnection"></param>
  7. public DataTable ConvertDataReaderToDataTable(string query, string myConnection)
  8. {
Nov 18, 2015

What is SQL DataAdapter in C#? ›

The SqlDataAdapter provides this bridge by mapping Fill, which changes the data in the DataSet to match the data in the data source, and Update, which changes the data in the data source to match the data in the DataSet, using the appropriate Transact-SQL statements against the data source.

What is DataTable in C# with example? ›

The DataTable class in C# ADO.NET is a database table representation and provides a collection of columns and rows to store data in a grid form.
...
DataTable In C#
METHODDESCRIPTION
CopyCopies a data table including its schema
NewRowCreates a new row, which is later added by calling the Rows.Add method
6 more rows
Nov 8, 2021

How to add rows and columns in DataTable C#? ›

After you create a DataTable and define its structure using columns and constraints, you can add new rows of data to the table. To add a new row, declare a new variable as type DataRow. A new DataRow object is returned when you call the NewRow method.

How to convert DataTable to dynamic object in C#? ›

The idea is pretty simple.
  1. Get the columns names and types for DataTable.
  2. Get the class attribute names and types.
  3. Write converts function for DataTable Data Types to your properties Data Types.
Dec 6, 2014

How to convert DataType of column in DataTable C#? ›

Once a DataTable has been filled, you can't change the type of a column. Your best option in this scenario is to add an Int32 column to the DataTable before filling it: dataTable = new DataTable("Contact"); dataColumn = new DataColumn("Id"); dataColumn. DataType = typeof(Int32); dataTable.

How to convert DataTable to string array in C#? ›

Very easy: var stringArr = dataTable. Rows[0]. ItemArray.

How to read data from database in C# using DataReader? ›

To retrieve data using a DataReader, create an instance of the Command object, and then create a DataReader by calling Command. ExecuteReader to retrieve rows from a data source.

How to add data from DataTable to DataGridView in C#? ›

Create a DataTable and define the columns as in the following:
  1. DataTable table = new DataTable();
  2. Columns. Add("ID", typeof(int));
  3. Columns. Add("NAME", typeof(string));
  4. Columns. Add("CITY", typeof(string));
Jun 6, 2014

What is the difference between DataGrid and DataGridView? ›

The DataGrid control is limited to displaying data from an external data source. The DataGridView control, however, can display unbound data stored in the control, data from a bound data source, or bound and unbound data together.

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